The oil and gas industry both depends and impacts upon biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES). The aim of this guide is threefold. Firstly, it explains the relationship between biodiversity, ecosystem services and the oil and gas industry. Secondly, it provides a set of checklists to help identify the main ecosystem service dependencies and impacts of oil and gas developments. Thirdly, it highlights key associated risks and opportunities for oil and gas companies, and provides guidance on potential measures for managing them.