The success of a response to an oil spill incident is based on prior preparedness efforts as well as an understanding and working knowledge of the capabilities that make up the “response toolkit.” These capabilities can be used in different situations or simultaneously, depending on various factors, with varying levels of effectiveness. Further resources are available in the Oil Spill Prevention and Response website.
Surveillance and Modeling
Several capabilities form the surveillance and modelling strategies required for effective response to oil spills. Surveillance and modelling technologies have developed significantly over the last two decades, enabling improved response.
Dispersant use can be an effective way of minimizing the overall ecological and socio-economic damage, enhancing the natural biodegradation processes and preventing oil from reaching coastal habitats and shorelines.
|The Role of Dispersants in Oil Spill Response||Glance/scan|
|At-sea monitoring of surface dispersant effectiveness||Technical report|
|Dispersants logistics and supply planning||Technical report|
|Dispersant decision toolkit||PDF / Video||Infographic / Animation|
|Dispersants role in biodegradation||Video (YouTube)||Animation|
|Dispersants: surface application||Good practice guidance|
|Dispersants: subsea application||Good practice guidance|
|CEDRE: Testing subsea dispersant injections at laboratory scale||Research report|
|SINTEF: Subsea dispersant effectiveness bench-scale test protocol||Research report|
In-situ burning (ISB) is the controlled combustion and burning of spilled oil at, or close to, the spill site. ISB is recognized as a viable response tool for cleaning up oil spills on water, on land, and on ice.
|Guidelines for the selection of in-situ burning equipment||Technical report|
|CEDRE/INERIS: Preparation of an information document of in-situ burning residues||Research report|
|In-situ burning of oil spills||Good practice guidance|
At-Sea Containment and Recovery
At sea containment and recovery is the controlled encounter and collection of oil from the water’s surface. Equipment is used to corral and concentrate the spilled oil to a suitable thickness, allowing for mechanical removal.
|The Use of Decanting During Offshore Oil Spill Recovery Operations||Technical report|
|At-Sea Containment and Recovery||Good practice guidance|
Shoreline and Inland Clean-up
Despite the best intentions of a response at sea or in an inland aquatic environment, there is likelihood that some of the spilled oil will eventually reach the shoreline. When shoreline impact occurs, or is likely to occur, shoreline assessment is a critical component of the response, as is understanding the factors to be considered as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the capabilities available.
|A Guide to Shoreline Cleanup Techniques||Good practice guidance|
|A Guide to Oiled Shoreline Assessment (SCAT) Surveys||Good practice guidance|
|Oil Spill: Inland Response||Good practice guidance|
|Shoreline response programme guidance||Good practice guidance|
Emulsified oil, oiled sand and gravel, and other oiled waste can increase the volume of spill-related waste to many times the volume of oil originally spilt. This waste often exceeds the capacity of locally available waste management infrastructure and, as a result, the management of response-related waste can become one of the most challenging aspects of an oil spill.
|Oil Spill Waste Minimization and Management||Good practice guidance|
Knowledge and experience of oiled wildlife preparedness and response has been gained by responding to spills of crude and fuel oils over several decades, with many of the same techniques, policies, and operating procedures able to be applied to spills of other chemicals that may affect wildlife.
|Wildlife Response Preparedness||Good practice guidance|
|Key principles for the protection, care and rehabilitation of oiled wildlife||Technical report|