Water is a crucial component across the oil and gas value chain. The industry withdraws fresh, brackish and saline water, including sea water, for numerous activities throughout upstream exploration and production and downstream refining, chemicals production and marketing. The industry also manages large volumes of produced and wastewaters.
This infographic summarises the water and wastewater management uses in the oil and gas industry.
For guidance on water management through the lifecycle of an operation and across the oil and gas value chain, see Ipieca's Water management framework.